What is big data technology and what are its applications

Oluwatosin Jegede

Big data refers to large, complex sets of information characterized by volume, variety, and velocity, often abbreviated as the three Vs. It involves data so vast that conventional data processing tools fail to handle them efficiently.

This complexity and size, however, open up new avenues to solve previously insurmountable business challenges. In essence, big data technology means dealing with data sets that are too large and complex for traditional data processing methods.

The three Vs of big data

Big data’s three Vs. stand for Volume, Velocity, and Variety.

  1. Volume: Volume refers to the enormous amount of data generated every second. This data can range from terabytes to petabytes in different organizations and encompasses a variety of forms such as social media posts, web page clickstreams, or data from sensor-equipped devices;
  2. Velocity: Velocity alludes to the extraordinary speed at which data flows. The data, often streaming directly into memory, requires real-time or near-real-time processing. This rapid pace is typical of smart internet-enabled products and demands immediate analysis and action;
  3. Variety: Variety signifies the wide array of data types available today. Unlike traditional structured data that fits into relational databases, big data introduces new unstructured and semi-structured data types. These types, including text, audio, and video, necessitate extra preprocessing to extract meaningful insights and support metadata.

The History of big data

Big data technology began in the 1960s and ’70s, starting with the first data storage centers and databases that could link data. By 2005, there was a huge increase in data from users on sites like Facebook and YouTube. This led to the need for better ways to manage large amounts of data, and so Hadoop was created. This open-source system, along with NoSQL databases, changed how we store and look at large data sets.

The growth of big data continued to increase with the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning, leading to even more data being produced. The advent of cloud computing introduced elastic scalability, offering ad hoc clusters for data subset testing.

Similarly, the rise of graph databases improved the visualization and analysis of large data sets. The journey of big data, from its inception to now, has been transformational, and its true potential is only beginning to unfold.

Big data technology use cases

Big data offers a wealth of use cases across multiple industries. Here are some noteworthy examples:

  1. Product development: Companies like Netflix and Procter & Gamble use big data to predict customer demand, aiding in developing new products and services. They build predictive models using historical and current product data and analytics from various sources like focus groups and social media;
  2. Predictive maintenance: Big data helps identify potential mechanical issues before they occur by analyzing structured and unstructured data. This proactive approach increases equipment uptime and optimizes maintenance costs;
  3. Customer experience: Big data provides a clearer view of the customer journey by collating data from diverse sources like social media and call logs. This facilitates personalized offers, proactive issue resolution, and customer retention;
  4. Fraud and compliance: Big data assists in identifying data patterns indicative of fraud. It also simplifies regulatory reporting by aggregating vast volumes of information.

Big data technology challenges

Big data, despite its numerous benefits, does present a few notable challenges.

  1. Volume: The sheer size of big data is a significant issue. Despite advancements in data storage technologies, the rate of data generation, doubling approximately every two years, still outpaces storage solutions;
  2. Data curation: It’s not sufficient to store data; its value lies in utilization. However, ensuring data is clean, relevant, and organized for meaningful analysis requires substantial effort. In fact, data scientists typically spend 50 to 81 percent of their time curating and preparing data for use;
  3. Rapid technological changes: The big data landscape evolves quickly. Apache Hadoop was once the go-to solution, then came Apache Spark in 2014. Currently, a blend of these two frameworks seems optimal. Keeping pace with these technological shifts can be a challenging task.

How big data technology works

Big data functions through a three-step process: Integration, Management, and Analysis.

  1. Integration: Big data integration involves bringing together data from numerous diverse sources. Traditional methods like extract, transform, and load (ETL) are often inadequate for big data. Therefore, new strategies and technologies are required for analyzing vast data sets. The objective is to process, format, and make the data readily accessible for business analysts;
  2. Management: Big data necessitates reliable storage solutions, which can be on-premises, in the cloud, or a combination of both. The chosen solution should support your computing needs and allow for scalability as needed. The preference often depends on where the data resides, with cloud storage increasingly becoming popular;
  3. Analysis: The real return on investment in big data comes from analyzing and acting upon the data. Visual analysis can provide new insights into diverse data sets. It allows for further exploration, sharing of findings, and the creation of data models with machine learning and AI. Essentially, this step involves putting your data to work.

Big data best practices

Navigating the big data landscape can be challenging, but some best practices can guide you to success:

  1. Align big data with business goals: Tie new investments in big data with specific business objectives. A strong business-driven context ensures continuous funding and project investments. It’s crucial to frequently evaluate how big data support your top business and IT priorities;
  2. Mitigate skills shortage: Standardize your approach to big data to manage costs and leverage resources efficiently. Make big data technologies part of your IT governance program. Assess skill requirements, identify potential gaps, and address these through training or hiring;
  3. Implement a center of excellence: This approach facilitates knowledge sharing, project oversight, and communication management. Sharing costs across the enterprise helps grow big data capabilities in a structured way;
  4. Align unstructured with structured data: While analyzing big data independently is valuable, integrating it with structured data can offer more profound insights. The aim is to incorporate more relevant data points into your core analytical summaries, leading to better conclusions.

Read also: Jobs of the future: data scientist and machine learning engineer, what do they do

Big data is about transforming data into actionable insights

Navigating the big data landscape may seem daunting due to its sheer size and complexity. However, understanding its nature and adopting big data practices can provide businesses with game-changing insights and opportunities. The key lies in effectively integrating, managing, and analyzing these massive data sets. By doing so, organizations can leverage big data to fuel innovation, boost operational efficiency, enhance customer experience, and much more.

Despite the challenges, the potential benefits of big data far outweigh the obstacles. As technology continues to evolve, strategies for handling big data will become increasingly sophisticated, further empowering businesses to harness its power. Remember, big data isn’t just about having more data; it’s about transforming this data into actionable insights and strategic knowledge.

Read also: The future of Data Science: upcoming developments and new industry trends

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